The biggest problem for car owners is the purchase or construction and arrangement of the garage. This issue is most acute in metropolitan areas, where prices for square meters bite, and you do not want to keep your “swallow” on the street in rain and snow. For motorists, there are only a few options:
- Paid covered parking. It has a high cost, so not everyone can afford such a luxury. Payment is made monthly, as for a rented room.
- Uncovered parking. Solves only one problem: the constant search for a place for the car near the house.
- Rent a garage. With long-term use, the amount paid will quickly exceed the cost of the building itself.
- Buying a finished garage or building it from scratch. The ultimate dream of any motorist.
An individual garage will stand for years, it will not ask for “eating” and will allow equipping a full-fledged workshop inside.
For owners of private sites, the problem quickly loses its scope. To create a cozy nest for a car, it is enough to choose a place for it, prepare a project, purchase materials and start building your own hands or attract a team of specialists. After the “box” is ready, you can proceed to the most enjoyable part of the process - design. The design of the garage focuses more on functionality than on beauty. Although this does not mean that the room can not have a neat aesthetic appearance. This nuance is often not paid attention, thereby making a mistake. As a result, most of the garages are typical buildings with cluttered furniture inside. On their shelves are stored not only the tools needed to maintain the machines, but also the "necessary" garbage that the house has nowhere to store. This is the habitat of cans, rags, old furniture and broken ski poles. The interior design of the garage also has its own styles and special design solutions. Consider interesting ideas that are actively used for arranging interior decoration according to the principle: not only convenient, but also beautiful.
By type of accommodation, garages are conditionally divided into three categories:
- Built into the house. Such a garage is included in the residential construction project and is being built at the same time as it. Most often, under the premises give ground floor or basement. Usually it has two exits: from the street and from the residential part of the house. The practice is widely used by owners of country apartments.
- Extension. After the construction of the house after the construction of the house. The option is optimal in cases where the site can not boast a large area, and to the gate from the residential building "just nothing."
- Detached garage. It is a separate building, which is built most often at the gate and has direct access to the street.
Also designs are classified by the material of execution:
- Capital. As a rule, the structure is built of brick. It provides lighting and heating. Such a garage will last more than a dozen years.
- Temporary. Usually for construction use "improvised" materials: wood, decking, metal. Temporary construction can be as a full-fledged garage with walls, and an open parking space under a carport. Usually such light structures are erected while the site owners are busy building a residential house. The calculation is that the garage will serve a couple of years, and after that, when the opportunity arises, it will be replaced by a capital structure. If you do everything qualitatively, the temporary will become permanent.
- Combined. Construction may take only a couple of days. Pre-buy ready-made metal frame, which is installed on a capital foundation. Outside, the structure is sheathed with profiled sheeting, siding or block house.
- Wooden. Gradually losing its position, unable to withstand the competition of brick and foam concrete. With proper processing will not yield to them for durability.
- Metal. The most common budget option. "Ranks" of such buildings adorn the garage complexes in the cities.
- Foam concrete. Almost devoid of flaws. The garage keeps heat well and the material is fireproof.
In the circles of connoisseurs of beauty goes the saying “theater begins with a hanger”. By analogy, we can say that the motorist's house originates in the garage. Design project preparation is usually carried out in parallel with the development of a plan for future construction. You can do it yourself or get ready ideas from the Internet or specialized magazines. If you have good taste, it is better to give preference to the first option. Not only will the process be fascinating, the result will be original in its uniqueness.
In the process of preparation, the question may arise: is it necessary to create a design project of a similar construction, or “go it by itself” afterwards. Definitely needed. If you decorate the furniture after the fact, you will have to adapt to what has already been built. Preparation of the project ahead of time will allow changing the framework for translating interesting ideas, if they did not fit into them initially, that is, you can revise the entire garage project at the planning stage.
Planning a garage begins with choosing a location for its location and calculating dimensions. Everything is quite simple with the construction site, it is chosen according to the “convenient entry” principle. The minimum dimensions of the room are regulated by mandatory standards: 5 m length and 2.3 m width for one “parking” under the middle class car. In addition, when creating a plan, it is necessary to take into account the requirements for the equipment protection zone: another 0.5 m from each side. These calculations provide only the correct operation of the garage for the main purpose, and yet it is necessary to take into account the area where the storage systems will be located. Here they are guided by the estimated number of tools and special installations: grinders, clutches, jacks, spare wheels, and metal workbench. On a clean sheet of paper it is necessary to visualize the future location of each part, sketch out conditional storage systems: shelves and cabinets. This technique will help to plan the size of the garage correctly.
Any styles that are used in the design of living rooms are also suitable for the arrangement of a garage, but they mark the “golden” troika organically flowing into this room. It looks good in it loft, which combines the "industrial" finish with expensive, status elements of the interior. Brick walls - the business card of “combed” industrial in this room looks harmonious. Special attention is paid to the loft lighting: it must be a lot to emphasize the combination of luxury and negligence. Smooth surfaces, an abundance of “polished to a shine” metal, wood in the decor and simplicity in the lines are characteristic of a modern-style garage. The technical stuffing of the room turns into interior accessories. In American country wood, aged metal and checkered textiles typical of the Yankee heartland are used in detail. A good solution would be the arrangement of a rest room combined with a garage. This practice is found in western countries when billiard tables, mini-bars or a full place to sleep are installed in this room. The owner of the house will be able to do a long repair, and if necessary, lie down or unwind.
The role of the subfloor in any garage is concrete. Some leave this coating without finishing. Actually similar solution for temporary buildings or "cold" structures. In other situations, the flooring is made of the following materials:
- Paint. The budget option, which will only facilitate the cleaning of the room, but will not strengthen its foundation.
- Tiling (pavement or ceramic).
- Wooden flooring.
- PVC cladding or rubber plates. The material refers to inexpensive, but is inferior in performance to wood and tile.
- Bulk floor. Used in expensive projects. The high cost of pouring the coating due to its strength and durability. The material will strengthen the foundation of construction.
Keep in mind that special requirements are placed on the floor in the garage. It must be resistant to weight loads. Special attention should be paid to topping mixtures. They contain metal crumb, particles of quartz, corundum and mineral additives. Filling the topping mix will strengthen the floor surface and make it extremely durable. The coating can act as a second layer of the base for a decorative finish or become the main material that does not require additional lining.
If you decide to leave the "bare" concrete, then it should be polished. The polished coating will get a more “decent" look and it will become easier to clean.
The material for finishing the walls in the garage must be resistant to mechanical damage, chemical attack, sudden changes in humidity and fire. Among the popular methods of lining note:
- Concrete screed. Simple and economical option. The material fits well on a brick or concrete base. Pre-plaster the walls.
- Ceramic tile. It has a pleasant aesthetic appearance and is suitable both for heated garages and for “cold” rooms. The material will serve for a long time and with dignity it will stand the test of any vagaries of a special microclimate.
- Drywall In garages use frame method of attachment. When planning, this nuance is taken into account, since extra centimeters will be required for the construction of the structure. Gypsum cardboard differs in the democratic prices and is ideally suited for "cold" constructions. Gypsum, which is part of it, has a specific feature: it absorbs moisture when it is abundant and releases to the atmosphere during “dry” periods.
- Lining of PVC or wood. Plastic is a low-cost material that will survive any temperature fluctuations and moisture levels, but will easily break when hit hard. In this case, wooden lining is preferable. The material will last for a long time if it passes through the impregnation process with special compositions that prevent rotting.
- OSB. The material is sheets of compacted chips of a large fraction. OSB is lightweight, which is why it is easy to install, but it has a high flammability index. It acts both as a main coating and as a layer for decorative finishing.
- Artificial and natural stone brick. Natural materials are expensive, which pays off the durability of the finish. Imitation is not always suitable for "cold" garages.
Any of the above materials has its own advantages and disadvantages. The “poverty” of the color gamut of some coatings is easily corrected with a paint layer of the desired shade.
Ceiling should have a high threshold of resistance to pollution, temperature and humidity fluctuations, as well as to the effects of various kinds of chemistry. Among the common methods of surface cladding include:
- "Wet" plaster. Cheap option, which is then covered with decorative material.
- PVC panels. It is easy to wash, but even high-quality coating will last only a couple of years.
- Drywall It is simply mounted, has a neat appearance and allows for subsequent painting.
- OSB. Natural, non-toxic material, which has a relatively low cost.
Regardless of the type of coating, special attention is paid to the installation of fastening systems. From the quality of this work will depend on the life of the structure.
Proper organization of storage systems leads to the convenience of working in the garage. If everything is in its place and does not interfere in the aisles, then the cluttering of space will be prevented, and any object can be easily found. Storage systems are classified into two types:
Open shelving and wall shelves are recommended for use as essential items. Things that get less often are hidden in deep boxes. Closed lockers will help protect fragile or sensitive to the effects of the garage microclimate tools and parts. Among the materials from which the storage sites are created, out of competition is metal and wood.
Lighting devices must have a high degree of protection against moisture. Bulbs, covers and switches are made of special materials, and among the characteristics pay attention to their tightness. Lighting in the garage is well worked on two levels: general and local. Particular attention is paid to the second type, since natural light usually does not penetrate the garage. Local lighting in turn is divided into lower, middle and upper. The first is used in the repair of the machine. Medium-level local lighting should be installed on the wall directly above the working area so that adjacent objects do not cast shadows on it. Rare cases use the upper spot lighting, because the central ceiling light with a lamp does a good job with this task. If there is a viewing pit in the garage, then it is prohibited to install fixed lights in it with safety requirements. We'll have to use special lamps and carrying.
In the garage, ventilation is a must. It is divided into two types:
- Mechanical. It is divided into modular and monoblock types.
For the natural to work, it is necessary to artificially create the temperature difference between the room and the street. If the garage is warmer, the light air will flow out unhindered. A vertical distance of at least 3 meters must be maintained between the ventilation inlet and outlet. Only then will the air in the system constantly circulate. The placement of the vent inlet and outlet on the leeward side is also taken into account. It will be easier for the air to enter the room if its masses on the street naturally move in the same direction. The situation is similar with the ventilation outlet: it is placed on the opposite leeward side. Mechanical devices are sold ready-made, the owner will only need to install. Such ventilation independently copes with air forcing. So that the work efficiency does not fall, periodically it is necessary to clean the filtration grids.
Gates and doors
Doors in the garage are installed individually or complete with a gate. The latter option is suitable for tight spaces, where an additional opening is simply nowhere to do. The following opening systems are available:
- Swing. The most primitive option that needs extra space on the street to open the valves;
- The mechanism is lifting and turning. Provides a high level of sealing of the room and perfectly retains heat. Solid leaf gate rises to the ceiling and takes a horizontal position;
- Sectional type. The gate consists of separate panels, which are raised by a special mechanism. It is convenient in cases when the ground in front of the garage does not allow opening the doors to the street;
- Sliding type. The divergence of the valves is provided by a console, suspension or monorail mechanism. Door ramming is allowed;
- Rolling shutters This type of sash closing can be seen in shop windows after the end of the working day. Among the shortcomings noted low protection against hacking.
Traditionally, the gate is made of metal. Such designs are practical to use and guaranteed to last for a long time.
The process of designing a garage at first glance seems deceptively easy. In fact, a large number of nuances and features of the room that need to be considered will complicate the task. If you do everything right and find a middle ground between comfort and an aesthetically pleasing view, the garage will become not only a place to park the car, but also a cozy working area, where it is also comfortable for the car enthusiast.