Hand-made special, original things are always intertwined with human life. Textile mosaic is a type of needlework, where the material for the work are pieces of fabric of various sizes and colors, which, when stitched together, result in a solid piece. As a result of patchwork there is a canvas with individual patterns and colors. The sewing technique makes it possible to create three-dimensional structures. The level of development of patchwork mosaic can be attributed to the genus of decorative and applied arts.
History of quilting
Excavations and written historical sources indicate that people from ancient times used fabrics. He could extract and process natural fibers, creating textile materials. When working with such raw materials, after receiving the finished product, trimming always remains. There was a need to use them, so patchwork, in its particular form, appeared in many nations of the world.
The fabric is characterized by its fragility. The emergence of textile mosaic has a conditional definition. However, England is the birthplace of this technology. Recognized for the fact that patchwork here resulted in a separate class of decorative art, the development of which began from the beginning of the 18th century. Hence comes the terminology - patchwork. Literally means the following: work - work, patch - patch.
The appearance of patchwork is associated with the adopted law of 1721, which the leadership of England supported local wool producers, banning the importation and sale of calico. As a result, prices for this product increased in the country. Due to the lack of bright colors, skillful hostesses began to sew chintz patches on woolen cloths.
The main stages and the necessary tools
To perform any work requires a special set of tools. Patchwork is no exception, it requires its tools. Means, without which it can not do when working, are presented in the table.
|Scissors||Ruler||a piece of chalk||Triangle||Natural||Iron|
|Roller knife||Measuring tape||Copy paper||Square||Artificial||Thimble|
|Roller knife mat||A pen||Oval||A thread|
Having the necessary tools is important, but the choice of material also plays a big role. In textile mosaic, you can use any fabric. The easiest way to work with cotton. Calico fabric is an example of an inexpensive canvas with bright colors.
Chintz has the property of shrinkage. Wash, dry - desirable measures when working with the material.
Drap or denim material allows you to get a good result. The combination with other types of patches creates original patterns of finished products. But working with raw materials like chenille, silk is difficult. But the result justifies their use.
Before you start sewing from patches you need to come up with a sketch of the final product. Selecting the appropriate project, you can proceed to the pattern. But you will need templates. To create them, you can use samples taken from Internet sources, books and magazines on this topic. Based on your own measurements, it is also not difficult to make a sample. Having made a sketch and selected the required materials, you can proceed to the connection of individual patches.
The art of decorative sewing is diverse. Has its own technology and is divided into types. Using patchwork, you can create wardrobe items, different variations of hand luggage, interior items. Consider the main types of textile mosaic and their application in life.
The most common sewing technique in the world. Having originated in England, it migrated to other countries. Characteristic features of the style - a combination of precise geometric shapes with a monosyllability of the pattern. A standard fabric consists of two layers: the lining and the front side, which is sewn from patches. This image is suitable for creating objects of various sizes, for example, mittens, pillow case on the pillow, rug for the hallway.
Traditional patchwork is a single web of squares. They are arranged in a strict order, have two colors. Other forms of the flap are also used - triangles, stripes, diamonds of different colors. Details can be assembled in any form. Due to the comparative ease of manufacture of the final product, this style is central to the development of decorative art.
Crazy or crazy
A variety of mosaic, where the technology of production of fabric from patches using curved bands, irregular shapes, random applications is preserved. Originality is the essence of style. It uses unique colors, scraps of different shapes, special surfaces of the object (texture).
The style is characterized by the fact that pevvinging is performed instantly, without much thought. And yet, in the manufacture of products (panels, pillowcase, rug, pillow), here is applied technology masking seams. They are hidden by:
- Jewelery (beads, rhinestones, organic glass);
- Auxiliary parts (accessories);
Crazy style allows you to combine different materials when creating seams. Although the size of the patches does not matter, but the final product must have a certain shape, so you should follow the general rules in the manufacture of the canvas.
Version of patchwork, a feature of which is the technology of combining patches. Different fragments are tied to each other. The fabrication process is labor intensive. It implies not only knitted stitches, but each piece must be made with your own hands.
In needlework using different methods of knitting. They differ in the tools used in the work (hook, knitting needles). There are combined options where the motifs of both guns are combined.
The method of knitting takes less time. This method is used to create clothes, bags, bedspreads, decorating them with drawings. The hook has an advantage. When it is used, more refined products are obtained. The yarn keeps its shape well. To create the canvas can use any geometric shapes, even make three-dimensional drawings. Tablecloths, pillows, capes, made in this way, compare favorably with their appearance.
One of the most complex techniques, the emergence of which is associated with the pre-existing law prohibiting the lower class to wear expensive, colorful clothes. Therefore, the craftsmen themselves turned the old piece of fabric into pants or a cape, making the products not only practical, but also decorated the black cheap cloth so that it combines restraint and minimal luxury.
Preference in this style is given to silk. Stitches are actively used, they are the main highlight, thanks to the use of the seam "forward needle" or the classic "sachiko". The use of such stitches allows to emphasize patterns and contours in a special way.
Of particular interest is the ornament, which is a printed print or hand-embroidered pattern. Another feature that highlights the Japanese patchwork - the use of applications. Reception makes the pictures more alive.
Japanese specialists do not use sewing equipment in the process.
Needlework originated in America. It is considered folk art. It takes its origin from the first settlers. Quilting can also be called as American patchwork, but in a broader sense. Quilting, quilt - direct translation of the word "quilt". In turn, quilting is the process by which a product is created.
Stitching at least three layers of fabric is the main feature of this technique. Unlike traditional patchwork, they use an intermediate layer - filler (synthetic winterizer). Sew products by hand and on a sewing machine. On the front surface perform three-dimensional quilted pattern, which creates a three-dimensional effect.
Quilting technology allows you to create different things: a cape for a sofa, a blanket, a painting, clothes, a pillow, a rug, an ottoman, and other furnishings (everything here depends on the master's imagination). Easy-to-look style only in appearance, it requires a meticulous approach to work, so when creating the first products you should choose a simple geometric pattern.
Kinusayga - patchwork without seam and needles
Savings and frugality caused the emergence of art. Its appearance was influenced by the high cost of silk, from which they sewed kimono. Clothing was inherited, and when worn out, it was used again for the manufacture of other things, called komono. Not a single shred was thrown away, all the remnants of the processing went to the production of paintings.
Step-by-step technology is as follows: first they sketched a sketch, then they transferred it to the future canvas (wooden frame). After you had to cut the grooves and cover the contours with silk. This technique allowed us to create three-dimensional images, to get full pictures.
In the art of sewing, nothing is needed, so it is called "patchwork without a needle." Applique - the basis of style. Apply it to decorate household items, you can use when creating souvenirs, any thing (book, picture, box, toy), decorated with decor, looks favorably.
This technique is recommended to use natural material. Style involves the creation of images where a piece of fabric and paste, and sew to the canvas. Patchwork material should not be glued to applications, which later fall into the wash.
Creating an application is simple. The main thing is the presence of an idea whose scheme is embodied on the canvas. The basis of the product should be dense fabrics. As the material for the sketches take cardboard. On the cutouts of cardboard impose fabrics of different colors and fasten with needles, after which a pattern is made. The resulting elements can be sewn or glued to the base. In conclusion, it remains to apply the decor in the form of rhinestones, foam plastic, beads. This simple execution of actions allows you to create an elegant product. This is the master class for making patchwork applications.
Variety of techniques
Patchwork is done by amateurs, craftsmen, professional artists. Their activity supports, to some extent, revives, creates new techniques of textile mosaic. Using dissimilar technologies from traditional to crazy, using different colors of materials, whether black and white or colored, working with any fabrics (wool, denim, knitwear, silk), as well as using their imagination, create masterpieces.
There are many techniques to create patchwork mosaic. Consider some of them:
- Fast squares. One of the first skills in this art. The square is cut from the previously prepared strips of available raw materials. Initially, the traditional technology used two-color material, but now everything has changed. It is easy to sew the squares, and the resulting blankets, sheets, pillows will make your favorite bed cozy, create comfort in the bedroom.
- Watercolor. Everything here is also built on squares. The effect of an image created with watercolors is achieved by combining the dark and light colors that the flap has.
- Striped strip. The emergence of technology contributed to the use of a sewing machine. The smaller the band, the better the ornament goes. You can arrange stripes of fabric as you like, here the designer flight of thought is unlimited.
- Log hut. The main feature is the spiral arrangement of the bands around the square located in the center of the canvas. The standard colors of the square are yellow or red.
- Magic triangles. In textile mosaic, triangular shapes are very popular. Connecting them, you can get different forms from a rhombus to a multi-pointed star.
- Patchwork corners. The technique allows you to create voluminous tacks, toys, decorate clothes, make edging blankets. To create a solid canvas flaps are not sewn. The edges of the strips, the squares are wrapped in a triangle, and then they make a seam with which they are fixed on the base.
- Chess The technique speaks for itself. Small squares are staggered. By expanding the patchwork bedspread created by the chessboard, you can get diamonds.
- Russian square. Differs in complexity of assembly of a multilevel ornament. Use a combination of squares, stripes and isosceles triangles.
- Lyapocciha. Peculiar art. The base must be sheathed with very small pieces of fabric. The base material is presented in any form, it can be filled with fillers. To give the product volume choose knitwear. "Lyapak", "blooper" - serve as the name of this technique.
- Chenille. The canvas contains from five to eight layers. The bottom or base should be the most dense, you can use old jeans. Intermediate layers (3-5). The front is a neat strip. The technique allows you to create a new material from old fabrics.
Many do not know where to put old jeans, and in a patchwork mosaic there is a whole technique for using them. Denim patchwork, though considered difficult, but does not require the sewing of linings. It combines black and blue colors and shades.
Ideas for patchwork
Patchwork mosaic allows you to refine almost any interior, used in the creation of decorative things, serves as an application. Even in history there were cases when it was used at the official level in the army, where pompons were used on the headdresses of the soldiers.
Consider what can be done using patchwork:
- decorate the wallpaper with paintings created by kinusayga;
- hang curtains handmade;
- cover the furniture row with a tablecloth, napkin;
- make the bed with original linen;
- put on the floor knitted rug;
- Lay tile in patchwork style.
Patchwork is really an art. In the course of its development, technologies appeared in different countries with characteristic features. The number of technicians is also steadily increasing. Textile mosaic is found everywhere, it allows you to give new life to old things.