A fireplace is one of the elements of an “expensive”, luxurious interior, although it used to exist in every home. It seems you can look at burning fire forever. Since ancient times, people gathered around such a hearth to warm up and cook food. Houses in ancient times were heated by fire, with the help of it they made candles, soap, glass products, painted fabrics, smoked fish, meat. Later, rich families even began to hire special people, whose duties included maintaining the fire in the fireplace. The profession of a stove-maker appeared - a person who builds fireplaces.
Now they are made and produced a variety of, and the decor of the fireplace is often made by hand. Separate types of construction not only warm, decorate the home, but also are able to heal the atmosphere of the room, if equipped with a special filter, decorated with elements of Himalayan salt.
Types of fireplaces
Fireplaces differ from each other in the type of fuel used:
- electric fireplaces;
Fireplaces on the wood, like many others, are made with a closed or open hearth. It is better to lay such a fireplace even at the stage of building a house - it is important to properly make a chimney so that the wood does not burn too fast, the smoke does not go into the room. In the closed glass door is made, made by a special technology that prevents the appearance of soot. He himself is made of brick, cast iron, veneered with stone or wood.
Gas connected to the cylinder or a separate gas pipe, working on methane, propane-butane. They are noiseless, fireproof, and also require equipment with a chimney. Electric are connected to the mains through a regular outlet. In fact, this is a regular heater, but stylized as a fireplace. It heats up quickly, takes no more space than a plasma TV, sometimes it is equipped with an air filter, it doesn’t need a pipe. Biofireplaces work on alcohol or bioethanol. They well heat small rooms with “live” fire, almost without emitting harmful combustion products into the air. Peat is fueled with briquettes or crumb of peat, coal.
There are also differences in installation method:
- island, including suspended;
According to the method of radiation of heat, the design of the furnace itself is distinguished from one-sided, double-sided, three-sided.
By appointment fireplaces are divided into:
- for barbecue;
- stove heaters;
The design can be created of any shape - square, round, cylindrical, pyramidal, polygonal, etc., depending on the type of interior, the functions performed.
Styles and colors for registration
The hearth is selected individually for a certain style of the interior - with the modern variety of various finishing materials it is not as difficult to make it as it seems.
What do fireplaces look like, made in different variants of room design:
- classic - is made U-shaped, has a massive structure, is made out of plaster bas-reliefs, columns, wrought iron bars, lined with natural stone;
- country - has a D-shaped, made of stone, well-kept heat - shell rock or sandstone, the pipe is made out of plaster, the design looks very simple;
- Art Nouveau - occupies space from floor to ceiling, has a square or rectangular shape, is monotonous, most often black, white or red, most often performs only a decorative function;
- hi-tech - it is made mainly of modern materials - glass, metal, periclase, concrete, etc., it is made of any shape, sometimes asymmetric, it can be two-sided;
- ecological - made of brick, decorated with natural wood, plaster, has a rough shape, is usually installed in the garden;
- Rococo - takes quite a lot of space, gets "antique", has multiple moldings, is decorated with mosaics, tiles, signs with gold.
Variants of facing materials
Facing the fireplace can be anything - it all depends on the design ideas. Since the standard design consists of a hearth and a portal, both elements are made out separately. Falshkamin and electric consist of one portal, not having a hearth. When choosing finishing materials, it is important to consider where the hearth is located - at home or on the street, for which interior it is designed.
The most important factors are:
- flue material - when wood is collected to be heated, the lining must withstand temperatures up to 900 degrees, but for oak wood it is required that it easily endure 1000 degrees, for other solid fuels - 1200;
- location - if a summer terrace or a garden is chosen as the place of installation, a frost-resistant lining is needed, any materials will be suitable for the construction placed in the house and having an exclusively decorative purpose;
- moisture resistance - when the room is not heated, non-moisture resistant materials quickly crack, peel off;
- weight - for the heavy construction on the first floor of a private house an additional foundation is required, the second and higher floors will not be able to withstand a heavy fireplace.
What makes fireplaces:
- a stone;
- Himalayan salt;
- colored plaster;
- a tree;
- foam blocks;
- forged parts;
- fiber cement panels;
- sheet iron.
Not all types of finishes are suitable for working, but not fake fireplace, so when you buy this or that material, you should read the instructions.
It is considered the best solution for any style, all types of premises, garden design. This finish not only looks good, but will be the most durable. The heat, humidity, it is not terrible, but the weight of the fireplace is large enough. A large construction requires the manufacture of a separate foundation, which is made at least ten centimeters more than the base.
The following types of stone are commonly used:
Artificial stone weighs much less, looks like natural, is most often made of plaster in combination with stone powder, pigments. It is easy to handle, well cut. Laying start from the bottom corner after leveling the surface. But most types of fake stone is not able to withstand high temperatures, high humidity - its suitability for certain works should be clarified with the purchase.
Used for registration of electric and falshkamino, as it is able to easily catch fire. For rooms with high humidity, it is also not suitable - it cracks, deforms. Caring for wooden surfaces requires constant, otherwise they will quickly lose their normal appearance. The material is impregnated with special compounds that prevent mold, damage by insects, rodents, stained, varnished.
The most popular wood species are:
- oak, beech;
- pine, spruce;
- Karelian birch;
Such a hearth has a beautiful texture, becoming a unique piece of furniture, decorated with carvings, volumetric chiseled elements, inlay.
Ceramic tile for decoration is used quite often - the variety of shapes, sizes, colors, designs allows it to design the designs of most of the currently known styles. Before installation, the surface is carefully leveled, and the solution is made as homogeneous as possible - if a pebble or debris gets under one of the tiles, it will lie unevenly, which will significantly ruin the appearance. Next is the marking of the treated surface. Details require a quality fit, and various types of tiles are fixed with the help of solutions of different composition. For some types of interior fit rectangular tiles that mimic red, white or multi-colored brick.
The most luxurious interiors are decorated with tiles. Once it was decorated with palaces, temples, houses of wealthy residents of large cities. The material contains terracotta clay, which is suitable for all types of fireplaces, but these should have a furnace made of cast iron. Elements are produced glazed, shiny, as if made of glass and without glaze - resembling simple pottery. According to the stylistic design, the tiles are vintage, modern, classic, etc., have a high decorative effect, sufficient durability.
Decorative plaster can be easily applied independently, but in order for the design to look neat, a preliminary leveling of the surface is required, as well as ground coating. Often, several types of plasters of various colors are used, and brushstrokes are performed chaotically. The material does not withstand excessively high temperatures, so it is used for fake fireplaces or those that are fired only occasionally with non-solid materials.
Fretwork is made of gypsum or polystyrene foam. The latter option is only suitable for electric fireplaces or their imitation. Columns, semi-columns, sockets, niches, pilasters, corners, openwork details, etc. are made. Sometimes the whole stucco bas-reliefs are made, depicting various plots, which are later painted with special paints or left white.
Steel and forging
Cast iron and steel elements, accessories are suitable for all types of structures. Doors, grilles are made of metal, the whole fireplace is completely - the heat is not terrible for it, and the anti-corrosion coating will protect it from excessive moisture. Real fireplaces with "live" fire are also supplied with forged poker, tongs, shovel, stand for firewood. Patterns or whole plot canvases on the doors, the screen are performed using plasma cutting, or are also forged by the master by hand under the order.
Most often on the doors depict:
- contours of animals, birds, fish;
- silhouettes of people;
- geometric figures;
- plots from literary works;
- urban, rural landscapes;
- musical instruments, sheet music.
Of the minuses of such a finish, they note the high cost, since almost the entire decor is made by hand or using an expensive laser machine.
Fireplace, decorated with glass elements, perfectly fit into any modern interior. Glass is used refractory - withstanding up to 1000 degrees, covered with a special compound that prevents the appearance of soot. It reflects a portion of the thermal radiation inside the structure; it is produced smooth, convex, and may have patterns. Such a fireplace heats the room slowly, but you can look at the fire closely, without fear that the spark will fall on clothing, furniture, carpet.
Heat-resistant paints are also used here. They have a silicone base, after application they form a protective film on the surface that can withstand temperatures up to 650 degrees. Before painting, the surface to be processed is leveled, cleaned of grease, old plaster. After the painting is done with a brush, cans, hand-painted.
The decor around the fireplace and the adjacent wall
It is important to fit any fireplace into the interior beautifully, to decorate the space around it in an original way.
The place near the fireplace, above it is decorated in several ways:
- fresh flowers in pots, pots - they are placed on the mantelpiece or next to it, the most thermophilic are chosen;
- dry bouquets, wreaths - you must make sure that they are located out of reach of fire;
- wire - for an artificial fireplace, a grid is made of it, which is painted with various paints;
- polyurethane - is an imitation of stucco for the walls, various patterns "antique";
- mirror - it is placed on the wall or attached to the mantelpiece;
- candles - inside the falshkamina place thick candles that can be flavored;
- photographs in frames, souvenirs, statues - they are placed on a shelf above the fireplace, in niches on the wall;
- photowall-paper - they are glued behind the construction, the fireplace is located on their background;
- a picture inside - electric fireplaces portals are sometimes decorated with images that periodically replace each other;
- embroidered panels, knitted toys;
- paintings in frames.
Design ideas for holidays and other events
Even the simplest fireplace is easy to decorate with materials at hand, it usually does not require any special knowledge and skills. For each holiday is selected its own kind of decor, which changes when the event has already ended or the time of another is coming. For example, on Valentine's Day the design is decorated with a bunch of hearts, a panel with declarations of love, on Halloween - a pumpkin with slots in the shape of a face, with a lit candle inside. By the 8th of March or 23 February, the corresponding figures are made from scrap materials, the decoration is carried out in red and pink or blue-blue colors. Graduation from a university or other educational institution, retirement, housewarming, and birth of a baby are decorated according to the tastes of the hero of the occasion or his relatives.
To the wedding
White candles in candelabra, porcelain pigeons, paper hearts and flowers will make a holiday luxurious. The fireplace itself symbolizes the home, a good idea would be to make it the center of the wedding interior. Often used bouquets of white roses, crafts from foam, light garlands of paper, photos of the newlyweds, a panel with their names, ribbons of pastel colors with wishes of happiness written on them.
A photo or a whole series of photos of the birthday will be located on the mantelpiece, next to his favorite drinks. A garland of paper colored flags, aluminum foil, lots of balloons, words of congratulations over the fireplace will immediately create a sense of celebration. Decorative candles, flowers, soft toys, objects related to the activity of the person being congratulated will be an original addition. Also decorate the interior with colorful postcards.
Spring fills the house with freshness, because the spring-summer hearth is decorated with primroses in vases, tulips or daffodils grown independently in pots with fluffy willow branches, artificial plants, grass wreaths. A birdhouse, bird figurines, pictures of awakening nature are placed on the mantelpiece, and beautiful garden tools are placed next to it. Decorating the fireplace with small panels of cuts of the tree, with images of blossoming sakura, willow twigs will create an organic interior. Sea theme with shells, models of sailboats, pictures of sunsets over the water will suit for summer design.
For Christmas and New Year
The scenery of spruce, pine branches will come in very handy for the New Year holiday. They are decorated with Christmas decorations, colored cones, foam snow, golden spray paint. LED garlands, tinsel are placed around the perimeter, baskets are put on the shelves, tangerines are put there, candies, decorative socks are hung over the hearth, in which Santa Claus should put presents. Bright cardboard boxes are placed on the shelf or nearby, paper stars, snowflakes, Christmas angels complete the picture.
An indispensable attribute of this celebration is an egg. Painted chicken or homemade foam eggs in baskets woven from a rod or newspaper are placed on a mantelpiece, there are also Easter cakes, Easter hares, porcelain angels, and spring greens in small vases. Paper, fabric garlands with the image of eggs, decorations of colored cardboard, textile balls, embroidered elements complement the interior.
The hearth is considered to be the main symbol of a strong family, wealth in the house. Once it was used to heat a dwelling, cooked food. Now, this object performs primarily a decorative function, and therefore is made very beautiful, it is selected individually for various types of interiors. Many owners of this hearth do the fireplace decor with their own hands - various workshops on this topic are posted daily on the Internet, and some of the owners even turn to professionals for help.