Traditionally, papier-mâché is used to make masks. The material created from improvised means, takes absolutely any form. Papier-mache in the interior began to be used recently. The material was associated only with children's creativity and the creation of fakes, and the author's bas-relief, a three-dimensional panel, an exclusive vase and even an artificial brick or stone can be made from “wet paper”. The papier-mâché decor is notable for its simplicity, but at the same time it has an incredible hardness and durability. In contrast to glass, such decorations will not be broken, but it’s better to keep silent about how much high-quality imitations of natural stone cost. Let's take a closer look at several papier-mâché master classes and get inspired by the creative ideas of other decorators.
History of origin
The name papier-mâché translated from French means “chewed paper”. Although the original name for the original dough for modeling was invented in France, China was its true homeland. Even in ancient times, when paper was invented here, in parallel, they developed a simple way to create a special material that was malleable at work, but had strength after drying. Extra stiffness of papier-mache was imparted by applying several layers of varnish on the finished product. The Chinese preferred to create battle helmets from the paper mass, which really protected the heads and even the elements of armor. It would seem that it could be more stupid than trusting your life with soaked and glued paper, but the ammunition was popular. The arrows did not pierce it, and the sliding blows of the swords could not have been altogether wary. In addition, papier-mâché compared with metal uniforms was as light as a feather, which allowed Chinese soldiers to move with greater speed and dexterity.
The next baton was taken over by the Japanese. Having obtained a papier-mâché recipe, they adapted it to their culture, creating original decorations for holidays and traditional ceremonies for this country - masks from paper dough. The products were polished with skins to a wax gloss and covered with additional protective layers, were painted. It turned out great and easy to manufacture decoration. From Japan, the papier-mâché recipe came to Europe, where the French called it a well-known name, and the British improved it. Someone John Baskerville, a former printer, opened the production of papier-mâché decor. At first he used Japanese samples, and then began to introduce his ideas. Plates, jewelry boxes, figures of people and animals, decorative masks and even watches enjoyed unprecedented popularity. Assistant decorator Henry Clay conducted experiments with the compositions, trying to find the original recipe, which will gain even greater strength. And ultimately he succeeded. The soaked mass was dried in the manner of clay under the influence of high temperatures, and it turned out to be incredibly solid, not even inferior in strength to wood. His recipe Clay patented.
Later, several other companies producing original papier-mâché jewelery were opened, but the “paper dough” eventually migrated to creativity and a hobby. He was kneaded at home and made dolls for children, baskets for candy, decorative saucers, vases, lacquered jewelry boxes. The material is especially popular as a cheap imitation of expensive surfaces: metal, wood, ceramics, and stone. To give similarity to the original, simply pick the right paint and create a true texture, which is easy to achieve by removing the cast from the real surface. The papier-mache technique came to Russia in the time of Peter I. When working with paper pulp, it is necessary to take into account that the products sit tightly after drying. Volume loss can be up to 5-8%. Therefore, it is necessary to make the decor obviously larger in size, taking into account this feature of the mastic.
Products made of papier-mâché will last a long time if the average humidity level is maintained in the room. Constant "soaking" will greatly shorten the operational life of jewelry.
As for the manufacturing techniques, two main methods are used:
- Mixing mass in the tank.
- Overlaying paper layers on the prepared mold.
The first option is suitable for those cases where the product will sculpt with hands or pour the mass inside the molds. The process itself is reminiscent of working with clay or clay. The second method is useful if molds are used that cannot be filled from the inside, but the master cannot repeat their form. Usually we are talking about balls, that is, such products that are difficult to perform perfectly independently.
Mass cooking recipes
Although the basis of any technique is paper, it can be “prepared” in completely different ways using unusual additional ingredients. Depending on the recipe, chalk, rosin, flour, drying oil, gypsum, starch, paste, and even crushed oatmeal are added to the compositions. Sometimes rather unusual components are used, but we will look at two traditional recipes that advise papier-mâché masters to beginners.
Recipe number 1
For the first recipe, you will need paper (toilet, office, newsprint), liquid soap, PVA glue, hot water, and construction putty. Work begins with kneading dough. About 8 rolls of toilet paper (this will be enough to get about 2 kg of the finished mass) are crushed and placed in a clean container. It is filled with hot water. Paper give "rest" a few hours. Now it is placed in gauze, folded several times, a cloth (not very dense) or a mosquito net. Mass squeeze, but not dry. Then the paper is crushed again. For these purposes, use a mixer or blender. The result is a fibrous dough, which is added to about 1 tbsp. a spoonful of soap (even the Fairy dishwashing detergent will do). Stir. Now, PVA glue is gradually poured into the mass. Add it in portions so that the composition is evenly mixed. There is no exact dosage of glue. Here the master decides for himself how much thick papier-mâché he needs. After the glue in the dough add 4-5 Art. spoons of putty. The mass is kneaded again. Papier Mache is ready to use.
Recipe number 2
To prepare the composition according to another recipe, you will need:
- 0.5 kg of toilet paper.
- 0.5 kg of PVA glue.
- 2-3 art. spoons of flax oil.
- 1.5 liters of warm water.
The paper is crushed and filled with water in a clean container. Future dough is left for a day. After the paper swells, it is placed in portions in gauze and wring out. Now add glue to the bowl. It should be divided into five parts and gradually pour into the pulp, each time carefully mixing. Now, flax oil is added to the almost finished papier-mâché, which will make it possible to obtain more elastic products. The mass is mixed again and the dough made from paper for modeling is ready.
Ideas for papier-mache
Vases, small sculptures, bowls, chests, boxes, boxes, dolls are made of papier-mâché. With the help of paper pulp, you can create a bas-relief or volume panels on the wall. From the material they make pebbles, pebbles, bricks, which, after painting, differ from the real ones only in weight. The unusual decor is fixed on the walls, fireplaces, around the door or arched openings. This option is ideal for budget repair, if the designer has free time to build on the creation of numerous elements.
Vases are the easiest to make using the technology of putting pieces on the form. The base can be old or cracked ceramics that you want to recreate. Newspaper sheets are crushed, moistened in glue and put on a vase in layers. After drying, the resulting product is cut in half, separated from the sample, and then re-fastened with wood glue. To get a round vase use a balloon. After curing, papier-mâché is pierced with a needle and taken out through a small hole, which is also subsequently glued. The flexibility of the material allows you to create complex, openwork surfaces. Additionally, the decoration is decorated with egg shells, threads that form patterns, accessories, beads, buttons.
In decorating walls, papier-mâché is used to create complex artistic compositions and to make cheap decorative finishes. In the first case, you will need a plywood sheet, which is applied to the picture. Then bred paper-adhesive mass, which form the individual fragments of the picture. After drying, the parts are glued to the base strictly along the contours of the pattern and painted. If you make enough effort, you can get fantastic panels with images of fairy-tale princesses and unreal creatures. This decoration is ideal for the interior of the children's room. The bedroom or living room is decorated with paintings of volumetric flowers, birds, animals, trees. The kitchen will look spectacular still life or embossed vine. In order to make bricks or stones from a material, forms are necessarily harvested. To do this, select a suitable sample (and preferably a couple), place it in a container and pour plaster. When you need to decorate a large section of the wall, use several molds, since this will significantly speed up the time-consuming process of stamping. Instead of toilet paper, it is recommended to soak the egg trays. The composition must add alabaster for greater strength. Products are well dried and fixed on the wall with wood glue. If you need a smooth surface, the artificial stones are ground with sandpaper.
A panel will look unusual, where a part of the picture is made with colors, and only accent details are decorated with papier-mâché.
Decorative items and crafts
From papier-mache it is possible to make door handles or hammers, decorative wreaths, which are additionally decorated with branches, sacking, cones and ribbons. The material is often used to create caskets, pirate treasure chests, piggy banks, candlesticks and artificial fruits. In the latter case, it is better to donate the original treat to create a shape. By the way, papier-mâché after drying will be easier to separate from mold if it is pre-lubricated with petroleum jelly. From paper pulp obtained and complex decorations. For example, the product is a decorative hand, on whose fingers are hung bracelets and beads. Stucco paper decorate furniture. Papier mache curls are no worse than plaster. The solar system of miniature planets, which are created using the same balloons, will decorate the room of the young astronomer.
Masks for carnival and not only
Papier mache is considered a classic material for making ceremonial and carnival masks. Of course, when working, it is better to use the purchased sample, which is simply wrapped around with pieces of paper smeared in glue. If the original is not at hand, you will have to use your own face. To do this, it is lined with a protective film (it is better to take food), then several layers of napkins and only paste the mass on top. After all the face shapes are transferred to the mask blank, it is removed, and the edges are cut in places where there is surplus, and additional pieces of paper are applied to increase the thickness of the product. After that, papier-mâché is allowed to finally dry and harden. Then covered with a layer of varnish, paint, glitter glued, pieces of foil, rhinestones and other small decor. The original decoration in the design of the room will be the head of an animal made of papier-mache: rhino, deer, wolf, lion. These elements are combined with hunting style, safari, chalet.
You can quickly make New Year or Halloween decorations from the material, when the time is already tight, and there is no time to run to the store: miniature pumpkins, Christmas trees, balls, bells, figurines of symbolic animals (deer, bear cubs, bats, spiders).
Papier-mache produce original plates, bowls, teapots, cups, bottles and glasses. Of course, it is impossible to use such dishes for their intended purpose, but the decor will be beautiful. From the same material, you can make a whole set for children's tea parties. A miniature teapot and a set of mugs will delight the girl. Themed figures of the Hatter and the White Rabbit will complete the ceremony. Plates after painting placed on stands. Such decorations are suitable for country, ethnic style, Provence and country. To make the dishes, use samples that are pasted over with paper. The shape of the plate is not easy to repeat. Decorative bowls can be used to store candy or fruit. The decoration will withstand such a load, but it should be protected from contact with liquids.
Papier-mache is a vivid example of the fact that even one of the simplest ingredients, adding to them a bit of fantasy, you can create something original, author's and, at the same time, incredibly beautiful. Over the years, the formulation of paper dough changed, new ingredients were added to it, but the two main components remained the same. Remember that it is not enough just to create an anatomically correct form, it must also be properly colored by connecting the talents of the artist. A papier-mâché model can be a wonderful hobby for the whole family, in which adults will make “serious” décor, and children - miniature figurines or masks. The process of working with the mass without moldov develops fine motor skills of hands, which is especially useful for a child.