One of the main buildings on the summer cottage is a toilet. Without construction it is impossible to imagine a full-fledged, comfortable existence. The structure intended for the administration of natural needs, most often is a booth installed above the cesspool.
The owners of cottages, suburban plots begin arranging the territory with the construction of a closet. If you can initially do without a house, a garage, then you cannot do without this object. To build a latrine is not difficult even for a beginner in the construction business. At the same time, a properly executed street latrine will not contain extraneous smells, there is no draft in it, it is not inferior to similar premises located inside buildings, connected to a common sewage system.
The choice of location: accommodation rates
The location of the outdoor toilet plays an important role. Its definition is guided by many factors. If no more than two people live in a country house, you can do with a dry closet, play-closet. For a full-fledged family, visiting the summer cottage on the weekend, living there seasonally, one cannot do without a cesspool. In the construction of such buildings should observe the following rules:
- SNiP 30-02-97. Clause 6.8: latrines should be located at least 12 m away from the residential building, cellar. The distance from the well should exceed 8 m. In this case, these norms are taken into account for objects located on the adjacent site.
- SanPiN 42-128-4690-88. The document contains the requirements for the construction of the cesspool device. Its bottom is located above the groundwater level, the depth should not exceed 3 m, the walls of the well are laid out of brick, blocks, or settled with concrete rings. The mine has a bottom, waterproofing, for example, in the form of a layer of plaster. The ground part of the building is made of brick, wood, gas, foam block.
- SP 42.13330.2011. In clause 7.1 it is stipulated that in the absence of a centralized sewage system the distance from the outhouse to the neighboring private house and the source of water supply is at least 12 m and 25 m, respectively.
When choosing a place, it is necessary to take into account the wind rose in order to avoid the presence of unpleasant odors in the future. If the territory is located under a slope, it is required to locate the building at the lowest point, while the well should be located on the slope above. Also, when constructing a toilet with a cesspool, it is necessary to consider the presence of an accessory for an ashenizator machine.
Types and features of toilets
With the construction of the toilet begins the development of the dacha. Depending on the exploitation of the territory, in the case of summer cottage for spending weekends in the warm season, it is enough to build a simple structure made from scrap materials. With permanent residence, long-term stay should provide for the presence of capital structure.
There are different types of closets installed in suburban areas. The main difference lies in the method of waste disposal. By this criterion, all facilities can be divided into three main groups:
- Sewer. Sewage withdrawal occurs through local or main sewage. This type is characterized by the use of a conventional flush toilet;
- Recycling. Separated into composting and incinerating. Waste disposal occurs naturally, when biological processes produce natural chemical elements and compounds used to feed the plants;
- Cumulative. These include powder-, backlash-closets, chemical, packaging, freezing, with a cesspool. After filling the space or tank, it is cleaned, sewage is moved into compost heaps, cleaning facilities for processing feces into compost.
Also, according to the method of arrangement, all toilets can be divided into two main groups, namely: buildings with and without cesspool. The ability to dig a mine for sewage depends on the type of soil, the height of groundwater, the presence of natural cracks. Let us consider in more detail the types of summer houses.
Choosing a design it is necessary to take into account a number of factors. The depth of the pit should not exceed 3 m, while the distance from the bottom to the highest point of the groundwater discharge should be more than 1 m. The volume of the recess is calculated depending on the number of residents and the time of their stay in the suburban area. On average, 0.5 m³ per person is enough.
The shape of the pit depends on the material used for the walls. If you install concrete rings - it is round. More often used square options. The walls are built of bricks, blocks, buta, wood. To ensure waterproofing, prior to laying, a special clay lock is made, up to 30 cm thick. A layer of clay is placed at the bottom and sides of the mine. Also used for these purposes plaster or bitumen applied to the internal brick, wooden surfaces.
When filling the pit more than 70%, it is cleaned with an ashenizator car. Therefore, when drawing up a plan for the construction in the courtyard, it is necessary to think out the ways of the entrance. To eliminate odors, the cesspool is equipped with ventilation, usually for this purpose use a pipe with a diameter of more than 10 cm. One end of the toilet is inserted into the recess, and the other rises above the roof of the above-ground building at least 50 cm. A special ventilation window is also made in the house itself. According to the method of location of the sump, two main types of structures can be distinguished:
- Standard option - the mine is located directly under the house;
- Backlash - groove digging in the side. With such a structure, the toilet can be located either in a separate heated building or directly in the house, and waste can be removed through angled pipes. Before entering the room play-closet usually settles vestibule. This is a capital structure that is not suitable as a temporary structure. Such construction will require large investments, it is advisable with constant use of a residential house.
Such toilets are built much easier and faster. Their design is a house in which a special sealed container is installed under the toilet seat, a bucket for collecting waste. There are several varieties of such structures, which differ only in the method of processing sewage and neutralizing odor. Among them are:
- Powder-closet. Next to the toilet seat (push) inside the toilet, an additional capacity is installed, filled with peat, ash, dry earth, sawdust, leaves, various mixtures of the listed components. After coping, fecal waste is powdered (powdered) with powdered substances.
Every visit is necessarily completed by dusting. The essential difference between dry needs is that after filling the tank, its contents are put on a compost pile, where it naturally turns into fertilizer.
- Peat toilet. In fact, it is a kind of powder-closet. The only difference is that as a dry hygroscopic material, only ground peat is used.
- With compost pit. Such structures are characterized by the fact that the processing of waste into fertilizer does not occur in the compost heap, but in part of the construction of the toilet. Capacity for waste collection is much larger than the previous options. Some models are equipped with special separate devices, separating the feces from the liquid.
Toilet with a septic tank
The most expensive and time consuming. In fact, this is a kind of cesspool design, but more refined. Due to its tightness, it is installed anywhere in the country allotment, regardless of the depth of the groundwater. The use of a septic tank makes it possible to place an ordinary toilet in the country and use it throughout the year. Popular placement options for toilets are:
- Shambo. It is made of concrete rings. Differs in ease of installation work, which many under the power to do it yourself. The disadvantages of this design include the appearance of unpleasant odors, the rapid filling of the tank, which leads to frequent calls of the assenizatorsky car;
- Cumulative. The same drain hole. It is an insulated plastic tank with low weight. Fills quickly, requires regular cleaning;
- Non-volatile. They are cleaning sewage in two stages. At the first stage, drains are cleaned up to 75%, after which they are discharged into the ground. They contain filtering systems. Fill slowly;
- Autonomous. Work from electricity. The most effective purification of wastewater, which allows the use of liquid re-for irrigation. The most costly model. They are used mainly in country areas where they live year-round.
Construction of a wooden toilet do it yourself
Primitive, at first glance, the design of the toilet can be attributed to the mandatory facilities at the dacha. Without an integral comfort zone to fully exploit the land is very difficult. Create a personal toilet project first. It is unlikely that it will be possible to make a real home bathroom with wooden hands, but it is quite possible to ensure the minimal comfort of working process and outdoor recreation.
Type of construction
Execute the construction will fail accurately if you have a detailed drawing with the application of all sizes. Following the plan will increase the likelihood of a positive outcome, even in the absence of carpentry skills. Properly formed design will perfectly fit into the overall design of the site and increase the level of comfort.
Despite the similar functionality, there are many types of wooden houses for outdoor toilets. The main difference is the method of construction. The choice of type of construction depends on the personal preferences of the owners of the dacha, the amount of the material used - on the dimensions of the toilet. Wooden toilets for giving can be classified according to the form of the structure into the following types:
- Birdhouse. A simple village model has a single-pitch roof, which reduces the cost of its cost, but at the same time makes it shaky and blown by the winds. More suitable for the summer option. On the roof, you can place a barrel of water;
- Hut. One of the complex types of designs. For the manufacture will require a lot of wood trimming. Thanks to a faceted shape, heat is preserved in any weather, even in winter. A variety of design variations for the garden allows you to enter the model in any design area;
- Hut. It has a gable roof, a simple architectural form. Sturdy construction features high resistance to adverse weather conditions. The construction will take a minimum of materials, if you first make the correct installation scheme;
- House The most comfortable, warm option. The type of construction allows the most unusual design solutions. A durable frame is built on a small plot of land using a minimum of building materials. Can be single, double;
- Toilet with shower. The combined country house is complemented by a summer shower. This type of construction is profitable from a financial point of view, significantly saving space. Rooms have a common wall and roof.
Arrangement of the cesspool begins with the preparation of the pit. Its size should be 30 centimeters higher than the planned useful volume of the sump. To facilitate the finishing process, the pit must be given a square, rectangular shape.
The bottom of the cesspool firmly tamped down, poured clay. Such a layer will prevent sewage from entering the soil. Then they make a sand pillow, press the pieces of the brick loosely and cover it with a reinforced net of bound rods. The bottom of the pit is cemented with a mixture of rubble and concrete. For high-quality hardening enough 2 weeks.
The walls of the toilet pit can be laid out with bricks, reinforced with booths or resin-impregnated boards. The material should not pass moisture, therefore, they resort to additional methods of waterproofing - plastering, coating with waterproof impregnation, resistant to aggressive media. Labor-intensive technologies that require reinforcement of the pit can be replaced step by step with concrete rings, PVC tanks.
Base and frame assembly
After arrangement of the drive proceed to the installation of the base and frame assembly. If the plans to use the toilet in the winter, the foundation must be poured below the level of freezing. So that wood does not come into contact with concrete, it is separated by laying of roofing material.
On the pre-marked surface make holes, insert support columns. For a wooden frame, it is better to use timber, pre-fitted in size, special pallets. On the inside, it is reinforced with braces, kerchiefs. Based on the type of stool, longitudinal bars are nailed at a certain height, which will serve as its foundation.
It is better to assemble the frame and mount it to the base using dowels or screws. For strength, you can use metal corners. The back and front walls in the upper part of the temporary connect wooden planks to maintain the same distance.
Carcass trim and door installation
For interior cladding, use lining or any suitable wood. The floor is lined with hardwood edged boards, starting from the side wall. So that during the operation, when shrinkage in the joints did not appear cracks, use the finished dowel or pre-cut slots.
The side walls are sheathed according to a similar principle. First, make a careful marking of the boards with the help of a corner and tape measure, cut out the workpiece and screw it to the frame. The back wall is sewn up with long panels, the side walls are short.
The door is installed very recently. To do this, you will need to re-measure the doorway to calculate the final parameters and ensure that the door is tightly pressed. Preliminary figures of the scheme may change. Wooden structures often hang on hinges. Their number and location depends on the weight of the door, design. The fixture can be a latch, latch, metal hook, pinwheel.
Install the roof on a small cottage bathroom is a snap. Based on personal preferences and the natural conditions of the region, you can use a flat, lean-to, gable. Since the area is small, the use of lag is optional. There are practically no restrictions on the choice of materials, but it is better not to move away from the single architectural ensemble of the site.
For the roofing of a wooden toilet, you can use both natural and artificial materials. Bitumen, wood complement a pleasant microclimate. This is the most economical option. Slate, polymeric isoplast, decorative tile - durable, resistant to precipitation, they can be decorated with similar structures. Let out their most different coloring. The metal roof is easily mounted. Light steel sheets, corrugated board, metal tile have the greatest durability.
Many people associate outdoor toilet with a lack of hygiene and an unpleasant smell. You can maximize the toilet in the area by carrying out the necessary communications. For best results, a cabin and a sump will be equipped with a hood. It can be natural, work from thrust of flows, change of pressure and forced - to purify the air with the help of fans. The hands can make it from plastic pipes of various diameters.
To illuminate the country toilet, which is far from the main building, it is not necessary to pull meters of electrical wires, install switches, and hide wiring. It is possible to use lamps on batteries from the sun. The device itself is suspended on a hook, installed on the floor, and the module is brought out onto the street, placed in a place with maximum natural lighting.
Spacious outdoor bathroom can be equipped with a cistern and sink for washing. In this case, the drain is also attached to the cesspool. You can organize the sewer system with PVC pipes.
Features of the construction of bricks
The construction of such material is not terrible any weather disasters. Brick toilet does not need additional external treatment, rarely repaired. The base and roof of such a building should also be made of rigid materials. The foundation is poured with concrete, slate and metal sheets are used for the coating.
The cost of building a warm house will be much higher than wooden models. Their main difference lies in the technology of brickwork. Ventilation is made from a simple plastic pipe. For internal insulation using mineral wool, drywall.
The advantages of installing dry closets
The main advantage of such a toilet is the ability to use without connecting to the sewer system, to be installed anywhere in the area. The main advantages of the models include the following factors:
- Affordable cost;
- Простота монтажа, обслуживания;
- Отсутствие неприятного запаха, насекомых;
Zagorodny put on, the summer cottage will not do without such an important building as a closet. Initially, you can build a temporary structure from scrap materials, and subsequently make a major toilet. Depending on the frequency of use of the building, its design is selected. In this case, the raw material for the works, both those remaining from the main construction and specially acquired, can be used as construction materials.