The adjoining plot cannot be imagined without a perimeter fencing. At least a temporary fence set before the start of construction of a private house or cottage. It allows you to fix the boundaries, performs a protective and aesthetic function. An equally important part of the overall structure is the passage, the opening in the fence. It serves not only for the passage, pass vehicles, but also acts as a decoration of the territory. For its manufacture, you can use different materials, but recently the most common gate of corrugated.
Professional sheet - composite building material with non-uniform structure. It is a galvanized steel sheet, protected by a polymer coating. In the presence of protective layers is the main feature of the product. Their number may be different. The simplest are three-layer models, they consist of a sheet of metal, galvanized on both sides. The best quality options can have up to 10 layers.
Sheet service life depends on the type of coating. According to this parameter, it is distinguished: galvanized, alumo-galvanized, profiled with polymer coating. The warranty period of the first type is 5 years, the second - 10, the third - from 10 to 20. The material is mainly used in construction. It is used for various purposes, for example, for erecting hangars, installing fences, making gates, covering garages, kiosks. Depending on the application, there are three main types of professional sheet:
- Wall (front). Marked with the letter "C". Differs in small profiling. The wave may have a height of 8,10,15,20,21 mm.
- Roofing (wall and wall) or NA. Compared with the first option, it is characterized by higher waves (20,21,35,45,57,60,75,80,90,100 mm). Used for cladding roofs, walls, installation of floors.
- Bearing (labeling "H"). Used mainly for the construction of supporting structures. Wave height is 75.80,90,100 mm.
In theory, any type can be used for the production of gates, but in practice it is mainly a wall variant that is used.
Advantages and disadvantages
According to GOST 24045-2010 p. 3.2 metal profiles are sheet products with corrugations located across the entire width. Their height varies in the range of 20-160 mm. The thickness of the metal sheet, taken as a basis, is from 0.3 to 1 mm. Due to profiling, a rather thin material becomes very durable. Among the other advantages of the product, which is very popular in construction, are:
- low cost in comparison with other building materials;
- low weight;
- long service life, in some species it can exceed 50 years;
- attractive appearance;
- a wide range of colors;
- allows you to make designs of any size;
- gives you the opportunity to save on finishing materials;
- resistance to sunlight, temperature, precipitation;
- corrosion protection;
- simple installation, but for the installation of the gate with their own hands will require skills in the field of construction, the ability to handle different power tools, including welding;
- simple care.
The main disadvantages of a professional sheet include:
- lack of sound insulation;
- weak resistance to mechanical stress;
- even slight damage to the protective coating causes the metal to rust.
Gate designs and their features
Equipping a ride to a dacha, many owners often wonder which gate is best for them. If before the choice was small, everyone was content with swing models, now everything has changed, there are much more varieties. Choosing the most suitable option, it should be remembered that the design should be easy to use, securely lock the yard, provide travel not only for cars, but also for trucks. Among the main types there are two main ones:
Swing. In turn, they are divided according to the following features:
- By the number of valves - single-wing, double-wing.
- On the external design - one-sided, double-sided. In the first case, the design is decorated only on the front side, in the second - on both sides.
- By the presence of the gate - deaf, with an entrance door located on one of the wings, or separately from one side.
- By way of opening - manual (mechanical), controlled by automatics.
Separately, you can select folding swing gates, in which the sash can be folded in half. This option is used when equipping a wide arrival.
Retractable. There are several types of these structures:
This classic version is most common. Swing models consist of one or two leaves, fixed on racks. They can open both inwards and outwards, depending on how the hinges are welded. Reliability and practicality of the construction has been tested not for years, but for thousands of years. She is very popular.
Sash consists of a metal frame, sewn professional flooring. Due to their light weight, they have a minimal load on the supports. For their fixation in the closed state, a bolt is used, in the open position - spring clamps, hooks with loops, stops. To prevent sagging of moving parts, the pillars must be installed on a well-buried, massive foundation.
This is the most simple and convenient system has several significant advantages:
- low cost, which makes the device accessible to all;
- universality, it can be installed on any fence, room;
- a wide variety of designs;
- simple installation, which is done by most owners of their own site.
- in case of improper concreting of the base for the column, insufficient depth of the foundation, the support may twist over time;
- light elements, sheathed by professional sheet, it is difficult to open in strong winds;
- to open moving parts will need free space in front of them;
- in winter, you will have to regularly clean the snow.
Retractable designs - a good alternative to the classic swing models. They are characterized by a more complex device, but they look very impressive. Consist of canvas, guides and rollers. Single and double leaflets are distinguished. Their principle of operation is to move the valves along the fence. This circumstance is their main feature. The main advantages of the gate include:
- attractive appearance;
- their opening does not require free space in front of them;
- well maintain wind loadings;
- do not interfere with the arrival of any vehicles;
- they do not sag.
Among the shortcomings can be identified:
- in comparison with swing models, they are more expensive;
- more complex installation work;
- installation of support pillars requires a well-concreted base;
- installation is possible only if there is free space along the fence;
- Roller bearings must be regularly cleaned of debris, in the winter of snow.
How to choose a profiled sheet
For the manufacture of the gate using wall profiled marked "C". It differs from the roofing and other variants by the height of the waves. The size of the ribs is indicated by a number. The higher it is, the stronger the sheet itself and its ability to withstand loads.
The most convenient for installation of gate professional flooring is marked C-18, C-20, C-21. It can be operated in the most severe conditions. When choosing the type of material must take into account the terrain, climatic features. Metal sheets consist of several layers, each of which performs its function. The steel base may have the following coating:
- From zinc;
- Plastizol or Pural.
According to the method of applying the paint layer, the sheets are divided into painted on one side only, painted on both sides in one shade, having a multi-colored two-sided coloring. The color range used is regulated by regulatory documents, among which the following standards are most common:
- European (RAL);
- Finnish (RR);
- English (HPS);
- Swedish (prela).
For the construction of the fence is the most appropriate profiled, having a two-sided staining. When choosing the right color, pay attention to its compliance with the overall design of the site and the house. Most often, preference is given to a green shade. It fits well in almost any landscape design, looks great against the background of natural green spaces.
Also in demand are brown, blue, gray tones. They are combined with the majority of building materials used for the fence, the facade of the building. Choose red and yellow colors is not desirable. The most unsuccessful solution would be to use an unpainted galvanized professional sheet. It is distinguished not only by its unattractive appearance, but also less durable and practical.
The process of making swing gates do it yourself
Some people consider that it is up to anyone to build swing constructions, even if he does not possess special skills. However, this is not quite true. After reviewing the instructions, most types of work can actually be done independently, but not all. For example, to cook a high-quality frame, you need the help of a specialist who knows how to handle equipment, has experience in this matter.
The process of manufacturing a structure consists of several stages. Initially, it is necessary to determine the location of the entrance, to make a drawing, to perform the calculation of the required materials. Then you can proceed to the preparation of the base, the installation of racks, the construction of the frame and its fixation on the supports, plating professional sheet. We will consider each separate step in detail so that when creating a gate with your own hands, to avoid random mistakes.
Consumables and tools
Calculate the amount of materials needed only after drawing a sketch. For each case, their number will be individual. To perform the work will require:
- spade and shovel;
- scrap, bump, if you want to remove the old concrete, brick floor or base;
- concrete mixer, old bath for mixing mortar;
- buckets, trowel;
- corner, building level;
- measuring instruments, pencil, nylon thread;
- welding machine and electrodes;
- Bulgarian with rifled and grinding discs;
- drill with drill set;
- paint brush, roller, airbrush for painting racks and frame;
- self-tapping screws.
The following types of raw materials should be prepared:
- sheeting for frame trimming;
- profile metal pipes of different diameters for racks and frame;
- withstand significant loads loop for fixing the valves;
- locks, latches, closures;
- coloring matter;
- crushed stone, sand, cement.
Gate and gate dimensions
The starting point in all the work is the installation site. The form of the structure itself, as well as its parameters, largely depends on it. For example, garage and front doors will have completely different dimensions, which for each case are selected individually. The easiest way to calculate the height value. To determine it, you need to focus on the fence. The gate should be flush with the fence, on average, this parameter is 2-2.5 m.
The height of the gate is determined by the same principle. According to the existing regulatory documents, its minimum width should exceed 80 cm. This is enough for one person’s free passage, but as practice shows, it is not enough for a comfortable crossing of the door with a hand luggage or bucket. The optimum width of the gate is 1-1.2 m. Some owners install wider doors at 1.5 m.
The choice of width for the gate is much more complicated. In this case, it is necessary to take into account many factors: the distance from the fence to the roadway, the radius of arrival, even the material that was used in the construction of the house. For example, a wooden cottage is distinguished by increased fire danger; it will take 6 m to reach the fire truck. 2.4-2.5 m is enough for the entry of passenger cars and 3.2-4 m for cargo vehicles.
When constructing a structure, it is impossible to do without a graphic image on which all the nodes and their dimensions are indicated. It will allow you to accurately calculate the number of materials required for the work, to perform a high-quality installation. You can create a sketch yourself, even if you do not have skills in drawing, it is enough to make a simple schematic drawing on a notebook sheet, indicate on it the parameters of all elements. In the drawing should be displayed:
- racks, their number, concreting depth;
- device frame, indicating the size of all its parts;
- parameters of each leaf;
- position and dimensions of the gate;
- total width of the opening;
- cladding material;
- hinges, their specific installation location;
- latches, clamps;
- elements that reinforce the frame (corners, transverse and diagonal bridges);
- locks, ways of their fastening, the location of the eyes.
We mount the supports for the gate
Installation work on the installation of doors of corrugated board start with clearing and subsequent marking of the territory. Initially we determine the location of the pillars. Further on the level we stretch the kapron thread that passes through the centers of the future holes. Then proceed to the main stage:
- With the help of a garden drill we make a hollow in the ground. Its depth is on average 1.5 m. In some cases, you may need a jackhammer. If a shovel is used for work, the width of the hole becomes larger, while the amount of concrete mix required for casting increases.
- At the bottom of the pit we fall asleep a cushion of rubble and sand up to 30 cm thick, tamping well. With a strong shrinkage, pour some more building material.
- At the bottom of the hole we build support. It must be prepared, covered with a protective primer, painted. The free space around it is filled with stones, pieces of old concrete. This reduces the volume of the solution.
- We align the rack with the level, we support it from different sides with bricks, cobblestones, if necessary we weld special lintels.
- In a concrete mixer or manually knead the solution, at a rate of 1: 3: 6 (cement, sand, crushed stone).
- Fill the concrete mix. Leave the foundation for a week so that the concrete clutches well. Periodically, once every two or three days, the surface can be moistened with water so that no cracks appear on it.
We make the frame and the frame of the gate
Starting to manufacture the frame, re-measure the width of the opening of the gate and the gate, taking into account the installed support pillars. This will allow time to make changes to the drawing, if any. Getting Started:
- Using a grinder from a profile pipe or a corner, we cut the blanks of the required length, which will directly depend on the method of joining the two elements (end-to-end, at an angle of 45 °)
- The surface is cleaned of rust and dirt.
- On an even basis of the components form the frame.
- Welding tack all the workpiece.
- Corner check all angles for evenness. If we identify a discrepancy, then the grinder cuts the welding, repeat everything again.
- We check whether the frames of the wings under the opening. We are convinced of their correct geometry, then we completely weld the seams.
- Strengthen the frame ribs.
Professionals recommend welding angles at an angle of 45 °, at least located above. This will protect the internal cavity of the pipe from the ingress of moisture.
Fastening the valves to the supports and the manufacture of fittings
Folds to the supports fix with the help of loops. Their number depends on the weight of the frame. For lightweight models, two elements are enough, for massive ones, three. Consider one of the possible installation options:
- Choose a board that corresponds in length to the distance between the racks. We cut it to the desired size.
- Putting bricks under it, set at the level of the lower point of swinging elements. After welding, they often subside, so put a 2 cm thick support on the center of the bar.
- Install the sash on the prepared base.
- Their upper part is temporarily fixed to the support posts with a rope.
- We make marks for the hinges, welding them to the gate and supports.
- Check the gate for opening. If no defects and inaccuracies are found, finally weld the elements.
Fastening the gate, proceed to the installation of accessories. Weld handles, bolts, latches (vertical, horizontal). For these purposes, you can use the corners, pieces of a round pipe, fittings. We hang locks. There are overhead, mortise, electromagnetic models. If necessary, install automation, security system (alarm, video surveillance camera).
Primer and painting design
Frame dyeing is one of the most important steps. The life of the product, its appearance depends on it. The process is as follows:
- Prepare the base. This allows for the best adhesion of the metal to the coloring agents. Using abrasive materials, such as sandpaper, we clean the metal surface. We pay special attention to welding seams.
- Отмываем конструкцию от пыли, въевшихся загрязнений. Используя уайт-спирит, обезжириваем металл.
- Грунтуем все металлические элементы. The solution can be applied with a spray or a regular brush. We give time to primer dried. It usually takes 12 hours.
- We start painting. For work, you can use alkyd, oil, acrylic paints. Starting from the top edge, apply dye with a roller, gradually shifting down. It is very necessary to handle all the edges and corners. For their staining is better to use a brush. Leave the paint to dry for a day. After this time, if you do not like the shade, you can apply another layer.
Sheeting professional sheet
At the final stage of construction it remains to sheathe the entire structure with a professional flooring. This is easy to do, but you need to know some of the nuances. Consider the instructions on how to fix the sheet correctly:
- Take a professional sheet, install it on top of the frame. If necessary, cut off the excess. We expose it by level.
- Holding the sheet in an even position, with a drill, carefully drill a hole in its lower wave and in the profile pipe to which it will be attached. The diameter of the drill should be 1 mm smaller than the size of the thread of the screw.
- For work it is necessary to use only special metal screws, which externally can be determined by the characteristic thread pitch. It is advisable to select consumables, painted in the same way as profiled.
- Do not tighten the screws to the end. At best, the gum will be damaged, at worst the polymer layer, which will lead to metal corrosion.
- The second sheet should be set so that its covering wave closes the previous wave. In the same way installation of the subsequent elements is made.
Do-it-yourself sliding gates
In a limited area it is impossible to install the usual swing gates. In this case, the situation can be saved by a solid structure made of sheeting with a rolling mechanism. It is easily manufactured and installed, it allows efficient use of space. By the principle of operation, the device resembles a wardrobe. The barrier sheet is moved along the fence to the side and fixed in a certain position by the support beam. Movement can be manual or automatic.
Materials and tools
It is easy to build a sliding door with your own hands if you have special accessories and certain skills in working with metal structures. To create a fence with a sliding mechanism, you will need the following materials and tools:
- For pipe supports 100x100 mm;
- For a pipe frame with an internal diameter of 20x20 mm, 30x30 mm;
- To guide steel rail;
- For fixing the canvas rollers with carriages;
- Upper and lower catchers;
- Automation kit;
- Professional sheet of a special mark to fill the section;
- Welding set;
- Concrete components;
- Drill, Bulgarian, screwdriver, metal shears;
- Bolts, screws;
- Spade, level, capacity for mixing mortar.
At the initial stage it is necessary to create a project of a future construction. It is necessary to measure the distance between the pillars and make a detailed drawing with a reflection of the exact parameters. The width of the opening will be influenced by the following factors:
- Purpose of the gate;
- The width of the roadway near the house;
- Type of entering vehicle;
- The length of the fence, the presence of free space along it.
Recommended dimensions of the 4x2 meter sliding construction. For ease of driving a car from a narrow street, the width can be increased. Also, this parameter is increased, if in plans a truck is entering.
Filling of the base, installation of mortgages and support
The metal construction of the sliding gate is heavy, so the installation will require the preparation of a solid foundation. Good stability will provide tape reinforced base.
A trench is pulled along the fence in the direction of the gate rollback. The width of the pit is 0.5 m, the length is at least 2 m, and the depth is 0.5 m. Two holes are drilled to install support columns. Pipes must enter a third of their length. The diameter of the hole is 2.5 times the pipe section. At the bottom of the pits for the pillars make a sand-gravel pillow with a height of 100 mm, and pour the concrete solution. The bottom of the trench between the pillars is also lined with sand and rubble, the reinforcement is tied and laid, and concrete is laid.
It is possible to make a foundation for a sliding construction using a channel, embedded supports. In this case, the armature is laid in trenches, welded to the beam and is concreted on the same level.
Make a frame of metal pipes. With the help of the grinder separate the segments of the required length in accordance with the drawing. Now they need to be cleaned from dust, degreased and painted with primer. After drying, the frame is welded out of them, the direction rail is attached to the bottom of the frame. The cooled seams are cleaned, treated with an anti-corrosion compound and paint the entire structure in the desired color.
Test welding must first be done "butting." This is done for preliminary verification of the parameters of the frame with the drawing. In case of non-conformity, any of the parts will be easy to dismantle.
Selection of components and installation of gates
For the manufacture of doors of corrugated will need to purchase some components. The guide rail must be thick enough to support the weight of the structure. Rollers and carriages will be required to provide movement and noise absorption. At the top and bottom of the gate it will be necessary to install catchers. To stabilize the gate when opening, you need a special fee.
The rollers are mounted on the beam in the lower part of the structure, placing them as far as possible from each other. The extreme part should not touch the plug when closing. On the movable elements set the frame of the gate and align the level. If the situation suits, scorch the platform carts, limit switches and traps. It is necessary that all parts match.
Sheeting profiled sheet
An important and final stage in the manufacture of sliding gates. For fastening of a professional sheet to a frame use self-tapping screws or rivets. Fasteners should be distributed evenly, placing only in the recesses of the profile. Their location should be determined at the design stage. Average consumption - 6 screws per 1 m2.
Ready gate can be added with necessary accessories, beautiful forged patterns. You can hit the side of the lock, install the lower lock, automatic for rollback, alarm, lighting.
Selection of automation for sliding gates
You can install and connect ready-to-work models by yourself. In order not to be mistaken with the choice, it is necessary to consider the following requirements for gate automation before purchasing:
- Power reserve must correspond to the load and dimensions of the recoiling structure;
- Preference is better to give models with all-metal gearboxes. Poor gears will regularly disable the entire mechanism;
- Magnetic inserts on limit switches ensure uninterrupted operation of automation in the winter;
- The access characteristics of the device must match the purpose of the gate;
- For self-installation suitable automation, ready for use. It is enough to install and connect to the network.
Gates from a professional flooring have many positive characteristics. They are distinguished by their low weight, attractive appearance. If you have experience in the field of construction, the ability to work with welding and various power tools, you can sheathe the structure yourself without any problems. However, you will need the help of a partner, since one person will not be able to hold a heavy frame, and he will be able to hold exactly the sheets.